FKUI Buildings in the 20`s, the 70`s, the 90`s, and until now
One says that the best learning point comes from the history. Indeed, the history of Indonesia has proven that the intellectuals from medical field had contributed in striving for the independence. The history also saw the establishment and development of Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia (FKUI) up to this very moment. So, how is the history of this beloved campus?
Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia in Colonial Era
The history of Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia is close to the general history of medical education in Indonesia as it was started during the Dutch colonization. Medical education in Indonesia was established on 2 January 1849 through the issuance of Keputusan Gubernemen No. 22. This was the starting point of medical education in Indonesia (Nederlandsch Indie) which was conducted in the Military Hospital.
Two years later, on January 1851, Sekolah Pendidikan Kedokteran (School of Medical Education) was opened at Weltevredeen with 12 students who studied for 2 years. Subsequently, the graduates from this school was conferred with title of “Dokter Djawa” (literally means Javanese Doctor) through the issuance of Keputusan Gubernemen dated 5 Juni 1853 No. 10. Although they were conferred with title of doctor, those graduates only served as a health officer/therapist for the measles patients (Mantri Cacar).
It was almost 10 years long that the Indonesian doctor had to wait to obtain greater responsibilities. In 1864, the length of medical study was changed to be 3 years and the graduates could become independent doctors, although they were under supervision of Dutch doctors.
In 1875, the length of medical study became 7 years including Dutch language course that become the formal academic language. More than 20 years later, in 1898, STOVIA (School tot Opleiding voor Indische Artsen) was established as a school of medical education. The alumni from the school were called as Inlandse Arts (the Domestic Doctors). On 1 March 1902, the duration of study was added to be 9 years which constituted 2 years of introduction and 7 years of medical education. This was also concurrence with the opening of new building for the medical school at Hospitaalweg (now Dr. Abdul Rahman Saleh Street no 26).
Only one year later, the length of study became 10 years (3 years of introduction + 7 years of medical education), together with the improvement of STOVIA’s organization. The title of alumni was also changed to be Indische Arts. In the very same year, another medical school was opened in Surabaya, with the official name of NIAS (Nederlands Indische Artsenschool).
In order to improve the quality of graduates in practice, at the end of year 1919, Centrale Burgerlijke Ziekenhuis (literally means Central Civil Hospital) was established. It was used as the teaching hospital for the STOVIA students. Now the hospital is called Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. The construction of white building campus that exists until this point of time was recorded to be finished on 5 July 1920. On the very same day, all academic facilities were moved to the new Salemba 6 building.
The spirit of medical intellectual was incited when on 9 August 1927 the medical education was official to be higher education institution with the name of Geneeskundige Hooge School (GHS). The interesting point was that up to year 1927, the prerequisite to enroll to the medical school is an elementary school graduate. After the establishment of GHS, the prerequisite was changed to be high school graduates (Algemene Middelbare School or AMS and Hogere Burger School or HBS).
In that period, STOVIA and NIAS were still existed but the length of study was cut to be 7 years with the elimination of 3 years of introduction period. Consequently, the prerequisite for the students for admission to both institutions cannot be lower than MULO (Meer Uitgebreid Lager Onder-wijs) part B or higher elementary education. On 8 March 1942, Dutch colonization was ended when the Dutch surrendered to the Japanese. This remarked the start of Japanese colonization in Indonesia.
Controversies were spread among the medical education. Some were pro and some were contra to this East Asian country. Two GHS students, Soedjatmoko and Soedarpo chose to wait. Meanwhile, another group led by Chairul Saleh and Azis Saleh went to Tangerang to greet the Japanese. Despite the differences, those groups of students were still united to guarantee the continuity of the medical schools.
It was the initiative of a NIAS students named Soejono Martosewojo that the medical school can be resumed after shut down for 6 months. With the help of student representatives from Jakarta-Surabaya as well as Dr Abdul Rasjid and several lecturers, Soejono proposed for the merge of curriculum concept ex-GHS and ex-NIAS. Prof. Ogira Eiseibucho, the chief of health office of Japanese Military Government, endorsed the proposal.
In light of the endorsement, education committee was immediately formed. The committee aimed to develop medical education curriculum as well as promote the academic staff to be lecturers, assistant lecturers and professors. The committee member were Prof. Dr. Achmad Mochtar, Prof. Dr. M. Sjaaf, Prof. Dr. Asikin Widjajakoesoemah, Prof. Dr. Hidayat, and Prof. Dr. Soemitro, with Dr. Abdulrachman Saleh as the secretary.
Concurrently, a committee was also formed by the Jakarta students including Koestedjo, Kaligis, dan Imam Soedjoedi, and Surabaya students, such as Eri Soedewo, Soejono, AK Gani dan Ibrahim Irsan. This committee developed a plan to merge ex-GHS and ex-NIAS to be a medical school with 5 years length of study. Adjustment to the admission system was done to support the new education system. Finally, on 29 April 1943, a medical school called Ika Daigaku was opened as a present from the Japanese government to Indonesia, with Prof. Itagaki as the dean of the faculty.
Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia in Post-Independence Era
After the independence of Republic of Indonesia, on February 1946, the name of the school was changed to be Perguruan Tinggi Kedokteran Republik Indonesia (Medical College of Republic of Indonesia). A year later, on February 1947 after the reinvasion of Dutch, medical education was held by the Dutch Government as Genesskundige Faculteit, Nood-Universiteit van Indonesie. The medical education in Perguruan Tinggi Kedokteran Republik Indonesia was still resumed in that period.
On 2 February 1950, both institutions were merged under the name of Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia. This merger was subsequent to the formal sovereignty transfer from Netherlands to Republic of Indonesia.
In the decade of 50’s, there were 28 subjects and departments, serving 288 students. There were still some Dutch lecturers. Most of subjects were still given in Dutch language. Academic facilities included Salemba 6 campus, Pegangsaan Timur 16 Campus, Rumah Sakit Umum Pusat (National General Hospital) and Raden Saleh Hospital.
The trace of history was not known to most of people since that particular time period. Thanks to the Perhimpunan Sejarah Kedokteran Indonesia (Persekin) atau Indonesian Medical History Association that studied about the history of medical intellectuals in Indonesia. In addition, there is Community of Prapatan 10 that consists of alumni from faculty of medicine and pharmacy when the school was still named Ika Daigaku and Yakugaku. The name of Prapatan 10 was taken from the dormitory that was located at Prapatan Street no 10, Jakarta.
The interesting part about this community is the traces of the alumni. In the period of Japanese colonization with the medical school named Ika Daigaku, some of the students actually chose to join with the group ex-Nias in Surabaya and ex-GHS in Jakarta. In addition, most of the alumni did not complete the medical or pharmacy education but they were active in other profession such as military, diplomatic or as public servant. Even in the independence war (1945-1949), most of them were join the fight to realize the true independence of Indonesia.
Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia – the year 1955 until present
Modernization started to occupy the medical intellectuals in Indonesia. In 1946, the length of medical study was 7 years. Nood Universiteit van Indonesia was opened, continued by the establishment of Medical College in Universitas Gajah Mada in Klaten in 1949. Although the formal curriculum stated the length of study of 7 years, in fact, students were able to determine their own study period. Whenever the students were ready, they took the examination. Thus, this period is called free study (vrije studie) period.
In later time, Indonesia was suffered because some of the Dutch lecturers had to go back to their countries after the true independence of Indonesia. Approach to the University of Carolina San Fransisco (UCSF) was done by Prof. Sutomo to resolve this problem. After long negotiation for years, the new curriculum was established with the help of UCSF on 12 March 1955. The new curriculum had 6 years study period with guided study system.
The new education system consists of 1 year pre-medicine, 2 years of pre-clinic, 2 years of clinic and 1 year of internship. In this curriculum system, the 4th year students underwent clinical rotation in Internal Medicine Department and Surgery Department each for 12 weeks; Obstetric Gynecology, Pediatric and Psychiatry-Neurology Departments each for 8 weeks. After passing the clinical period, students came to the one year internship period that consists of medisch for half year and chirugisch for another half year. The whole of internship duration was treated similarly as doctor examination part 2 so that at the end of 6th year, there was no examination. Students obtained letter of clarification from the authority to explain that he/she had undergone internship “with satisfactory, sufficient to be granted a doctor certificate”.
This teaching method was maintained for 27 years. In 1982, Consortium of Health Sciences (CHS) issued Kurikulum Inti Pendidikan Dokter Indonesia 1 (Core Curriculum of Indonesian Medical Education) or KIPDI 1 including General Instructional Objectives (GIO) and Specific Behavioral Objectives (SBO). SBO itself had already been implemented since 1955. Discipline based-curriculum then became the corner stone of the medical education of each department, which refer to the KIPDI 1 with cognitive aspect, psychomotor and attitude.
With a hope to develop standard medical education in Indonesia, CHS issued KIPDI 2 in 1994 which well explained the Conceptual Framework and Educational Orientation. FKUI immediately adopted KIPDI 2 which follows integrated and active learning. FKUI fixed up the first Faculty Curriculum that was integrated. Unfortunately, only 3 semesters (1995-1997), the system was switched back to departmental and passive learning (departmental-based lecturing). This was an irony when Faculty of Medicine in Singapore implemented integrated curriculum.
Into the new millennium and globalization challenges in the medicine, FKUI quickly made up herself. In year 2000, the faculty obtained a grant QUE P that later become the stimulus for the changing of curriculum. The result was the Faculty Curriculum 2005 that changed the old system as well as organizational structure in FKUI. The paradigm and mindset had been changed. The new curriculum demanded academic staff as a facilitator (tutor) that constitutes the crucial element of medical education. Facilitator has to be the activator or provocateur that motivates the students to learn. The academic staff has to be able to participate in producing leading doctors with critical, creative and innovative mind.
Lastly, history recorded that this was the second time that the faculty issued an integrated curriculum. Alongside with the FKUI Strategic Plan (Rencana Strategis or Renstra), the Faculty Curriculum 2005 (Kurfak 2005) was established and implemented until this point of time. This does not mean that the steps of FKUI would end here. With the same spirit when it was established, the spirit of fight in this campus has never been quenched. A spirit aims to manage medical education and nurture leading doctors. At the end, this faculty has never given up to progress on the healthcare of Indonesian people.
[courtesy of dr. Rushdy Hoesein, M.Hum. dan dr. Muzakkir Tanzil, SpM(K)]
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Dean of Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia