The development of anesthesiology in Indonesia had started before the World War II. In that period, under the Dutch colonization, anesthesiology was taught in teaching hospital Central Bugerlijk Ziekenhuis or CBZ, now known as the Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital (RSCM). Anasthesiology was taught as a topic in the Surgery and anesthetic procedure was typically done by the young assistant surgeon or co-assistant in Division of Surgery.
The main concern was still focused to the surgery, not the anesthetic part. There was no doctor specialized in anesthesiology in that time. Anesthesia had become a skill that has to be possessed by a surgeon or other doctors who undertake surgery. In other hospitals, especially outside Java, general anesthetic procedure was typically performed by medical officers trained by the respective surgeon.
Emergency condition and war during the Japanese colonization and post-Independent war had made anesthesiology did not further develop. Medical students joined to give service outside the teaching hospital including performing anesthetic procedure.
After the resolvment of World War II, medicine had big influence from the winner countries such as England and America. It was also the case for Indonesia. Right after the independence of Indonesia, a Dutch doctor, named Reeser, brought the skill of performing modern general anesthesia to Indonesia by endotracheal method using anesthetic machine.
The head of CBZ Surgery Division, Prof M, Soekarjo, truly realized that the development of surgery also depends on the advancement of anesthesiology. He sent his youngest assistant, named Dr, Mochamad Kelan Koesoemodipuro to learn about anesthesiology in USA for three years at University of Minnesota and Gouvesnier Hospital New York. In the beginning, Dr Kelan rejected twice, however he finally decided to go.
After his comeback to Indonesia in 1954, Dr. Kelan faced some problems. After training in USA with complete equipment and modern drug, Dr. Kelan had to go back to Indonesia to work with limited equipment and drugs. Another problem was also about workforce as the establishment of Division of Anesthesiology in Department of Surgery, any anesthetic procedure could only be performed by those people in the subdivision. Dr Kelan and Dr Oentoeng, however, continued to become the pioneer and develop anesthesiology in Indonesia.
In the 1960’s, doctors from Bandung, Semarang, Jogjakarta, Surabaya, Padang, Medang and Ujung Pandang came to Cipto Mangunkusumo to learn anesthesiology. Most of anesthesiology doctors trained in Indonesia were also given opportunities to learn to America, Netherland, English, Denmark, Sweden, Japan and Australia. After their comebacks to Indonesia, they were spread to some big hospitals in Java, Dr Sadono to the Gatot Subroto Hospital, Dr. Haditopo to Semarang and Dr Zuchradi to Bandung.
The division of Anesthesiology in the Department of Surgery in RSCM had slowly grown to be the supervisor and executor of all anesthetic procedure in the hospital. In 1964, upon the agreement of other departments, the management of Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia and Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital established the department of anesthesiology. There was 7 staff in the department. In 1970’s, anesthesiology grew stronger in Indonesia whereby the services were performed by specialist doctors. In 1973, dr. Moch Kelan was conferred to be the first Indonesian professor in Anesthesiology.
Intensive Care Unit in RSCM was established in 1971. It was the first of its kind in Indonesia with Dr. Muhardi as the first head of the unit. He was conferred to be FKUI professor in 1991. Since that time, Intensive Care as a part of anesthesiology had grown rapidly. Doctors who were interested in Intensive Care including Dr. Suroso, Dr. Indro Mulyono, Dr. Sudarsono, Dr. Kristanto Sulistyo dan Dr. Said A. Latief were sent to Melbourne, Australia to be trained.
Cardiac Pulmonary Resucitation (CPR) as an integral part of anesthesiology had started to develop. Dr. Sunatrio, Dr. Jusrafli and Dr. Y.A. Kasim were the pioneer for introduction of CPR to layman. Realizing the importance of CPR for candidate of doctor, the Medical Education Consortium decided to include anesthesiology into the core curriculum of medical education in 1980.
Other subdivision such as Pulmonary Surgery Anesthesia, Cardiac Surgery Anesthesia, Regional Anesthesia, Neurosurgery Anesthesia, Pediatric Anesthesia and others also swiftly expanded. Pulmonary Surgery Anesthesia was introduced by Dr. M. Roesli Thalib that later on also became to professor of Anesthesiology in FKUI. In recent years, Anesthesiology and Reanimation has developed management of emergency patient, pain management clinic as well as detoxification of fast opioid.
On 1 June 1967, Association of Indonesian Anesthetsiologist (Ikatan Ahli Anestesiologi Indonesia or IAAI) was established. At the beginning, IAAI only had 4 branches, which are Jakarta, West Java, Central Java, and East Java. In the 2nd national congres of IAAI in Bandung in 1988, the official name of IAAI was changed to be Ikatan Dokter Spesialis Anestesiologi Indonesia or IDSAI and subsequently was modified again in the 5th congress in Jogjakarta in 1998 to be Perhimpunan Dokter Spesialis Anestesiologi dan Reanimasi or IDSAI. Currently IDSAI has 12 branches and Solo is the youngest branch.
With relatively young age, anesthesiology in Indonesia has shown its existence as one of the important specialization, thanks to the pioneers who has established the development of anesthesiology in this country.
Anesthesiology, at the beginning, is a field of medicine which aims to eliminate pain in the patient during and after surgery. According to the American Board of Anesthesiologyin 1989, the definition of anesthesiology includes all practices as below:
- Evaluate, plan, and prepare patient for anesthesia.
- Aid patient to eliminate pain during surgery, parturition, or during any diagnostic-therapeutic procedures.
- Monitor and improve homeostatic in perioperative and critical patient.
- Diagnoze and treat pain syndrome.
- Manage and teach about Cardio Pulmonary Resucitation (CPR)
Anesthesiology training in FKUI has an aim to produce graduate with various measures including:
- To have responsibility in applying anesthesiology according to the regulation from the government
- To possess broad knowledge in anesthesiology as well as acquire good skill and manner in order to be able to solve problem according to scientific principle and optimally serve the public.
- To be able to communicate with colleagues and other members of medical team as well as to the public.
- To be able to develop of personality according to the scientific and professional ethics.
- To have ability to manage the service of anesthesia in a respoinsible manner as an integral part of medical team inside or outside the hospital.
- To demonstrate ability to manage critical care medicine that includes triage: rescucitation, emergency care and intensive care therapy
- To be able to determine, plan and, execute education and research independently and develop knowledge to the higher level.
- To be able to develop knowledge and skill as anesthesiologist according to public needs and advancement of science.
For further information, please contact:
Department of Anesthesiology
Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia
Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital
Jl. Salemba Raya No. 6, Jakarta Pusat 10430
Website : http://fk.ui.ac.id/dept/anestesiologi